Volume 32, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2019

Effect of Emulsifying Petroleum Derivatives, Water Deficit Treatment and Emitters Discharge on Dry Weight, Grain yield and Water use Efficiency of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Wisam B. Hasan; Ali H. Dheyab; Nihad Sh. Sultan

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160137

A field experiment was conducted in Qurnah district, Basrah province on clay soil to study the effect of six treatments of emulsifying petroleum derivatives with irrigation water by using emulsifying agent adding directly to soil surface, gas oil with two ratios of 0.3% (g3) and 0.5% (g5) w/w of soil dry weight, two admixture treatments of fuel oil and gas oil (1:1) with two ratio 0.3%(go3) and 0.5% (go5), fuel oil 0.3% (o3) and control treatment 0% (c) without any addition. The effect of water deficit factor also studied with two levels 0.85 (w1) and 0.65 (w2) of available water by using drip irrigation with two emitters; low discharge 5 Lhr-1 (Ld) and high discharge 15Lhr-1(Hd). The results showed that all emulsified derivative conditioners significantly increased  dry weight, grain yield and water use efficiency calculated for dry weight WUE (d) and grain WUE (g) of sunflower compared with control treatment, especially at g5 and go5 treatments which recorded the highest values. Soil capability for saving water and available water increased as a result of the addition of emulsified oil derivatives, which contributed to increase the interval time between irrigation periods and reduce the quantity of irrigation water with less value appearing at g5 and go5 under 65% water deficit treatment by using 15 Lhr-1 emitter discharge. Increasing emitter discharge from  5 to 15 L hr -1, and increasing irrigation deficit from 0.65 to 0.85 led to increasing all growth parameters, except water use efficiency.

Comparison Study between the Field Performance of a Movable Boards and Conventional Ditch Openers in Cultivated and Uncultivated Soils, Part 3: The Specific Resistance

Shaker H. Aday; Yarub Al-muthafar

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160138

The field performance of movable boards ditch opener (MB) and conventional ditch opener (CD) was contrasted by using a specific resistance to determine  the  optimum  performance  of  either   one   of   them.   The   comparison was conducted using three operating  depths  (30,  40  and  50cm),  three  angles  between  the  boards  of  MB  (45,  60  and  750),  one  angle  for  CD  (650)  because  its boards were fixed, three wings width  of  the  foot  of  MB  whereas,  for  CD,  one  share width  (35cm)  and  two  soil  types  (cultivated  and  uncultivated).  CD  could  not penetrate the  uncultivated  soil  more  than  25cm  so  that  there  was  one  operating  depth.  The  results  of  the  experiments  showed  that  SR  for  MB  decreased as the operating depth,  the  angle  between  the  boards  and  the  width  of the wings of the foot  in  both  soil  types  were  increased.  Specific  resistance  (SR)  for  CD  also  decreased  as  the  operating  depth  increased  in  the  cultivated  soil,    but  in  the  uncultivated  soil,  CD  could  not  penetrate  the  soil  more  than  25cm.  SR for MB was  lower  than  that  for  CD  for  all  operating  depths,  the  angle  between the boards,  the width of the wings of the foot in both soil types. SR for         MB and CD  in  the  cultivated  soil  was  low  compared  to  uncultivated  soil.  The  soil  type  decreased  SR  for  MB  more  than  the  operating  depth,  the  angle   between its boards and the width of  its  wings.  On  the  other  hand,  the  angle  between its boards reduced  SR  more  than  the  width  of  the  wings  and  the  operating depth. MB surpassed CD in giving lower SR and that means the field performance of MB was higher than that for CD.

Changes in Ear Postures of Kid Goats in Response to Ear Tagging

Nizar J. Hussein; Hoger M. Hidayet

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 25-33
DOI: 10.33762/bagrs.2019.160139

No study yet is undertaken to measure pain caused by ear tagging in kid goats using ear postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of ear tagging procedure on pain in black Karadi kids using ear position and frequency of ear changes. Twenty black Karadi kids, aged 10-14 days, were used in this study. Ear postures were scored using focal sampling and recorded with instantaneous time sampling to measure the duration of each ear posture. Each kid was observed separately for 6 minutes before and 6 minutes after the ear tagging process with 30 seconds intervals. A total of 24 ear posture samples were recorded from each kid. Results revealed that Ear tagging significantly increased ears backward (P<0.01) and decreased ears plane (P<0.001). However, no significant effect of ear tagging was found on ears forward (P<0.19) and asymmetrical postures (P<0.43). In addition, number of ear posture changes was significantly (P<0.001) increased after ear tagging. It was concluded that observing ear postures of kids directly after painful husbandry procedures such as ear tagging is a reliable non-invasive method to assess pain caused by these painful methods and hence helps better understands animal welfare.